Note that a star chart differs from an astronomical catalog, which is a listing or tabulation of astronomical objects for a particular purpose.Tools utilizing a star chart include the astrolabe and the planisphere. Rappenglueck has suggested that a panel in the same caves depicting a charging bison, a man with a bird's head and the head of a bird on top of a piece of wood, together may depict the summer triangle, which at the time was a circumpolar formation.A drawing on the wall of the Lascaux caves in France has a graphical representation of the Pleiades open cluster of stars. Another star chart panel, created more than 21,000 years ago, was found in the La Tête du Lion grotto.The bovine in this panel may represent the constellation Taurus, with a pattern representing the Pleiades just above it.It is a planisphere depicting the zodiac in graphical representations. The oldest surviving manuscript star chart was discovered in the Mogao Caves along the Silk Road – the Dunhuang Star Chart.This is a scroll 210 cm in length and 24.4 cm wide showing the sky between declinations 40° south to 40° north in twelve panels, plus a thirteenth panel showing the northern circumpolar sky.In Muslim astronomy, the first star chart to be drawn accurately was most likely the illustrations produced by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi in his 964 work titled Book of Fixed Stars.This book was an update of parts VII.5 and VIII.1 of the 2nd century Almagest star catalogue by Ptolemy.
It was most likely produced in Vienna, Austria in 1440 and consisted of a two-part map depicting the constellations of the northern celestial hemisphere and the ecliptic.
Based upon this information, the constellations were catalogued at A Roman era example of a graphical representation of the night sky is the Egyptian Dendera zodiac, dating from 50 BC.
This is a bas relief sculpting on a ceiling at the Dendera Temple complex.
A star chart or star map is a map of the night sky.
Astronomers divide these into grids to use them more easily.